History

George Washington’s Thanksgiving Proclamation

Here it is in its entirety, verbatim from the original – General Thanksgiving By the PRESIDENT of the United States Of America A PROCLAMATION WHEREAS it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – A Postscript

I got my paper back from Dr. Sullivan the other night. For some reason, as with everything in this class the past semester, I’ve been a tad nervous when receiving something back that has been graded; it’s just a thing with me, I don’t know why I’m apprehensive about it. And when I got my paper back I saw at the top the grade – a 75. Wow. C+. Awesome…for real.

No, it wasn’t awesome. It was kinda sucky.

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 6 – How They Made a Difference and Conclusion

Each of the men discussed in this paper made a rather remarkable contribution to the scientific pursuits, some more lasting than others. McCoy’s invention has probably been the one with the longest-lasting significance. As was true then, if you don’t lubricate an engine it will quit working from the friction. All engines, whether they are automobile, airplane or boat, must be lubricated in order to remain functional. McCoy’s drip cup became the basis for the self-lubricating engines of modern times.

Woods’ Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph brought efficiency and safety to rail travel at a time when train collisions could be common. With the invention of the telephone and further advancements in communications technology, the telegraph became an antiquated means of communication. Although obsolete on its own, his invention was one of a serious of steps into a wider world of communication that we use today.

Latimer’s invention set the standard in lighting for the 25 years that followed. In 1904 William D. Coolidge developed an incandescent light bulb using tungsten, which extended bulb life far beyond Latimer’s carbon-filament bulb.

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 5 – The Fruit of Their Labor

While McCoy’s inventions earned millions of dollars in profit, little of that money found its way into his pockets. Because he lacked the financial backing to manufacture his lubricators himself in large numbers he sold many of his patent rights to investors. In return for this he was given only small amounts that allowed him Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 4 – Education as the Foundation of Invention

Elijah McCoy was the most educated of the three. His parents, George and Mildred, both runaway slaves, fled to Canada from Kentucky. When the Canadian rebellions of 1837 broke out against Great Britain, George sided in the hostilities with the British. After the Red River Rebellion, as it was called, was quashed by the Crown, Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 3 – The Educational System in 19th Century America

African-Americans at the end of the Civil War craved acceptance as a people and this hope was only partially reciprocated. Education in the late 19th Century was either a short-lived moment in a person’s life or a multi-year luxury that few in the general populace could afford. Whites had an easier path to it, but Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 2 – The Inventions – Lewis Latimer

Latimer’s excellent artistic flair and drafting abilities at Crosby, Halstead and Gould – a patent law firm – advanced him quickly and he found himself eventually working for Alexander Graham Bell. At Bell’s patent law firm, he was in charge of drafting the necessary drawings required to receive a patent for Bell’s telephone. After a Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 2 – The Inventions – Granville T. Woods

The rock star of African-American inventors of the 19th century, Woods enjoy great fame during his lifetime. “The most noted Negro inventor of the country today is Granville T. Woods, of New York, having patented more than forty devices, relating to the control of electricity. One was sold to Bell Telephone for $10,000.”7 After working Read More

Elijah McCoy, Lewis Latimer and Granville Woods: African-American Inventors of the 19th Century – Part 2 – The Inventions – Elijah McCoy

The three inventors of focus didn’t have many advantages from life in general. Certainly not what you would expect from men who went on to be groundbreaking inventors. Two were the children of escaped slaves, the third of mixed race at a time when this was entirely socially unacceptable. However, despite what their parents were Read More

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